Capuano Mascarenhas, L., Ness, B., Oloko, M., & Awuor, F. O. (2021). Multi-criteria analysis of municipal solid waste treatment technologies to support decision-making in Kisumu, Kenya. Environmental Challenges, 4, 100189. doi:10.1016/j.envc.2021.100189

Platform
Kisumu
Publication type
Scientific article (peer-reviewed)
Projects
Solid Waste Management
DOI Title
Multi-criteria analysis of municipal solid waste treatment technologies to support decision-making in Kisumu, Kenya
Journal
Environmental Challenges
ISSN/ISBN
2667-0100
DOI
10.1016/j.envc.2021.100189
Author(s)
Luciana Capuano Mascarenhas Barry Ness Michael Oloko Frankline Otiende Awuor
Published year

 

Abstract

The directive to close the dumpsite in Kisumu, Kenya has made the search for alternative solid waste treatment and disposal technologies urgent. The aim of this research is to support the decision-making process by analyzing multiple socioeconomic and environmental parameters of salient solid waste treatment options. We used multi- criteria analysis to assess and compare anaerobic digestion, sanitary landfill, bioreactor landfill, and incineration. Informed by field observations and interviews, the chosen assessment criteria were economic costs, electricity generation, GHG emissions, land footprint, air pollution, soil and water contamination, and compatibility with recycling efforts. A literature review yielded quantitative and qualitative data that supported the analysis and the ranking of solutions according to performance in each criterion. Our analysis shows that anaerobic digestion is a suitable solution for Kisumu, due to its reduced environmental impacts, production of electricity and fertilizer, suitability to treat the large organic waste stream generated in the city, and compatibility with independent recycling activities. Landfilling represents a cheap solution; however, previous failed initiatives indicate that finding available land close to main waste generators is a challenge. Incineration is costly and requires advanced air quality control equipment and high combustibility of incoming waste, which is not the case for Kisumu, where over 60% of waste stream is organic/wet. Our results and recommendations are targeted for the Kisumu case, but they can be relevant for researchers and policymakers elsewhere, especially in low- and middle-income cities facing similar challenges.

African Centre for Cities, City of Cape Town, University of Cape Town and Mistra Urban Futures (2020) Lessons on collaboration and co-production 2012-2020 Knowledge exchange between universities and municipalities for sustainable and just cities. UCT Report

Platform
Cape Town Global
Publication type
Report/Paper/Working paper/Brief
Projects
Knowledge Exchange
Published year

 

Abstract

Knowledge exchange between universities and municipalities for sustainable and just cities.

Onyango, G.M. and Owino, F.O. (2021) Transit Oriented Development in medium cities in Africa: Experiences from Kisumu, Kenya. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning

Platform
Kisumu
Publication type
Scientific article (peer-reviewed)
Projects
Transport and Sustainable Urban Development
Journal
Journal of Geography and Regional Planning
Author(s)
George Mark Onyango Fredrick O Owino
Published year
Tags
Transportation Densification accessibility sustainable urban development Kisumu

 

Abstract

Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a planned area with land use that has optimal reach of public transport by urban populace it serves. Availability and accessibility of public transport minimizes reliance of use by private users and this is the cardinal rule of TOD Principles have been developed that provide a framework for understanding TOD. Kisumu is used as a case study in exploring these principles and their validity in medium sized African city. The application of these principles in guiding city planning and development highlights how TOD can be an effective driver of sustainable urbanization. The paper presents the concept of TOD and then builds into the case study city: Kisumu. It enables the reader to contextualize the discussions in the subsequent sections. The paper then addresses TOD conceptualization. It looks at the broad categories of TOD that has been demonstrated in Kisumu as a result of the interventions of various actors. It finally looks at the challenges and opportunities that exist for TOD as a planning and development framework.

This text was published by Rike Sitas, Liza Rose Cirolia and Marcela Guerrero Casas, 20 April 2021, at the website of African Centre for Cities and the African Urban Research Initiative (AURI) The AURI workshop series concluded on 25 March with an interactive session about...

Gutman. M., Cohen, M. (2021) Executive Summary Covid-19 in real time: comparing the struggle of three slums in Buenos Aires. New York: Observatory on Latin America

Platform
Buenos Aires
Publication type
Report/Paper/Working paper/Brief
Author(s)
Margarita Gutman Michael Cohen
Published year
Subject
Covid-19
Tags
Covid-19
Related content
Cities coping with COVID-19

 

Abstract

This is the story of an early episode in the war against a pandemic whose end is not yet in sight. The struggle is certainly global, but its impact is painfully local. It is a close look at the experience of three vulnerable neighborhoods in the southwest of Buenos Aires City whose trajectories were similar in the first decades, but whose most recent experience and especially during the pandemic have been different.

This research report seeks to explain why some villas in Buenos Aires have been able to respond more effectively than others to the challenges of COVID-19. This is a comparative history of the actions that took place between March and October 2020 in Villa 20, Villa 15, and Villa 1-11-14, including public policies carried out by government agencies, especially the Instituto de Vivienda de la Ciudad (IVC) and the Ministerio de Desarrollo Humano y H bitat (MDHyH), and the active collaboration of local organizations. It offers some insights to help understand why the processes unleashed in each of the neighborhoods have had different impacts on the health of their inhabitants.

Villa 20 is one of a number of informal settlements in Buenos Aires. As in many other cities around the world, authorities and inhabitants feared the spread of the corona virus in the informal settlements in the early days of the pandemic. Surprisingly, Villa 20 and some other...

Kisumu city in Kenya is overwhelmed by growing waste generation and limited capacity to expand collection services. Most of the waste of the informal settlements is not collected, posing great health and environment hazards. Several attempts have been made to improve the waste...

Ranhagen, U. (2021) Transport and Sustainable Urban Development: a comparative project in collaboration between Cape Town, Kisumu and Gothenburg. Mistra Urban Futures Report 2021:1

Platform
Gothenburg Cape Town Global
Publication type
Report/Paper/Working paper/Brief
Projects
Transport and Sustainable Urban Development Urban station communities
Author(s)
Ulf Ranhagen Sean Cooke
Published year
Subject
sustainable urban transport
Tags
Transport public urban transport urban justice

 

Abstract

The Transport and Sustainable Urban Development project represents one of eleven similar projects conducted under the Mistra Urban Futures research strategy: Realising Just Cities. The aim of this project was to develop the collaboration between three of the platforms: GOLIP, KLIP and CTLIP. The three cities involved in the project, Gothenburg, Cape Town, and Kisumu, are all subject to rapid urbanisation and face similar local challenges, such as growing inequalities, degrading infrastructure, insufficient housing, among others, while trying to cope with global challenges such as climate change. The project explored the role that transport plays in creating inequity and injustice, in three very different urban contexts, and the value in taking a ‘transport justice’ approach to analysing transport systems.

A collaborative, co-creative R&D process was developed continuously from the first discussion of the project ideas at the Realising Just Cities (RJC) conference in Gothenburg, in 2016. Important milestones in the implementation of the project were the RJC conferences in Kenya, in 2017, in Cape Town, in 2018, and in Sheffield, in 2019. The methods and tools for co-creation that have been introduced and tested by the representatives from the three platforms—and also by wider groups in their
respective cities—have proven themselves valuable in grappling with an exceptionally daunting challenge that permeates across extremely different contexts. Transdisciplinary co-creation and co-production methods have a bright future as the boundaries between disciplines blur and the complexity of the challenges continues to grow. These tools and approaches are particularly relevant to the transport planning discipline, where there is a growing acknowledgement among scholars that the traditional, mobility-focused approach has created futures with undesired, unintended characteristics. A paradigm shift regarding the fundamental premise of transport planning is being proposed. Accessibility-based planning involves shifting the focus from speed to access, from the system to the user, and from efficiency to equity. In order to examine the potential transition to a transport justice, or accessibility-based, approach to transport planning, this project applies the Multi-Level Perspective—a method from the sustainability transitions field—to the accessibility systems of the three cities. Furthermore, to provide insight into the functioning of these accessibility systems, initiative-based learning was conducted through an examination of planned rail projects in each city in collaboration with practitioners, decision-makers, and stakeholders. In Gothenburg, the policymakers have an advanced understanding of transport justice and accessequity, but the consumers continue to demand suburban housing and car-based mobility opportunities. In Kisumu, the paratransit (informal public transport) system is well-attuned to the differential accessibility needs of the communities that it serves, but it still relies on the infrastructure provided by government entities with very narrow perspectives on mobility. In Cape Town, the disparity in the transition seems to be between policy and implementation. Many of the actors within the transport system are calling for a more equitable distribution of access in the city. However, the budget allocation still favours road infrastructure and BRT (Bus Rapit Transit Systems) expansion over salvaging the rapidly deteriorating rail system and supporting the burgeoning paratransit industry. The differential pace of change by different actors within the accessibility system of each city could
create as much disruption as the landscape challenges like climate change. This study has shown some of the  value of bringing together the fields of urban planning, engineering, and socio-technical transitions to better understand complex urban systems and their related governance challenges.

Some of the key takeaways for using transport to contribute to realizing just cities are:
• A ‘transport justice’ approach starts with accessibility as the primary premise for transport planning and infrastructure investment. A central tenet of this perspective is that there is a minimum level of accessibility that a transport system should provide every user, irrespective of their income, gender, age, spatial location, or any other characteristic. Through this approach, accessibility acts as a proxy for poverty and other forms of injustice.
• Transport interventions that serve those with the lowest access should be prioritised and subsidised in order to raise their accessibility to the minimum level. Similarly, improvements to the transport system that largely benefit people with high levels of accessibility—usually wealthy car owners—should be optional and self-financing.
• The upgrading of the existing and new transportation systems should be planned and implemented in parallel with mixed-use and accessible urban developments, close to transportation nodes, including a multitude of commercial, social, and cultural services.
• The real estate markets should be sufficiently incentivised and regulated to facilitate more equitable access provision, through the facilitation of affordable housing and entrepreneurship around new or existing public transport stations.
• A rail system, with its important capacity to restructure cities, is a key tool in counteracting inequality and access inequity in the long term.

Ngusale, G. K., Oloko, M., & Awuor, F. O. (2021). Briquetting as a means of recovering energy from organic market waste. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 1–16. doi:10.1080/15567036.2021.1925784

Platform
Kisumu
Publication type
Scientific article (peer-reviewed)
Projects
Solid Waste Management
DOI Title
Briquetting as a means of recovering energy from organic market waste
Journal
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects
ISSN/ISBN
1556-7036 1556-7230
DOI
10.1080/15567036.2021.1925784
Author(s)
George K. Ngusale Michael Oloko Frankline Otiende Awuor
Published year
Subject
Fuel Technology Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment Energy Engineering and Power Technology Nuclear Energy and Engineering

 

Abstract

Municipal Solid Waste is causing pollution and health hazards in cities around the world. In Kenya, existing and emerging cities are experiencing increased populations with increase in organic market waste. Organic market wastes can be used to produce briquettes. This study aimed to formulate available organic market waste into briquettes of optimal energy or calorific value. The study used locally fabricated technologies such as manual screw press, ram-piston and using bare human hands. Taguchi method was used based on controllable factors: Ratio of raw material; percentage (%) of binder; Size of raw material and method of production. Out of nine (9) experiments, laboratory results showed that the sixth (6th) and ninth (9th) formulations yielded briquettes with high calorific value of 20,540 kJ/kg and 18,962 kJ/kg, respectively. A further confirmatory experimental test was carried out based on Qualitek-4 software optimal simulated conditions. The test revealed that a mixture of carbonized market waste of particle size 2–5 mm; ratio of one part charcoal dust, two parts sawdust, and one part maize stover; with 30% of binder made using manual ram piston yielded briquettes of high calorific value of 21,633 kJ/kg against Qualitek-4 simulated value of 21,771 kJ/kg. In addition, Greenhouse gases evolved: CO and PM2.5 concentrations are within World Health Organization (WHO) and Kenya Subsidiary Legislation on critical limits allowable for human exposure. These indicates that organic market waste can be used to produce briquettes with acceptable quality using locally available technologies.

Understanding and engaging with the different rationalities of participants in co-production of knowledge processes is essential, writes a Mistra Urban Futures team in a Trialog article.